Eye Investigations

An eye examination is a series of tests performed to assess vision and the ability to focus on and discern objects. It also includes other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes. Health care professionals often recommend that all people have periodic and thorough eye examinations as part of routine primary care, especially since many eye diseases are asymptomatic. Eye examinations may detect potentially treatable blinding eye diseases, ocular manifestations of systemic diseases, or signs of tumours or other anomalies. A full eye examination consists of an external examination followed by specific tests.

Refraction Test

A refraction test is usually given as part of a routine eye examination. It may also be called a vision test. This test tells your eye doctor exactly what prescription you need in your glasses or contact lenses. Normally, a value of 20/20 is considered to be optimum, or perfect vision. In other words, a refraction is an eye exam that measures a person's prescription for eyeglasses. If you don’t have 20/20 vision, you have what is called a refractive error.

Refraction Test

Topography

It is a non-contact examination that photographs the surface of the eye. Corneal topography is not a routine test. Rather, it is used in diagnosing certain types of problems, in evaluating a disease's progression, in fitting some types of contact lenses, and in planning surgery. Corneal topography is a special photography technique that maps the surface of the clear, front window of the eye (the cornea). It works much like a 3D (three-dimensional) map of the world that helps identify features like mountains and valleys.

Topography

B-Scan

B-scan ultrasonography (USG) is a simple, non invasive tool for diagnosing lesions of the posterior segment of the eyeball. Common conditions such as cataracts, vitreous degeneration, retinal detachment, ocular trauma, choroidal melanoma, and retinoblastoma can be accurately evaluated with this modality. B-scans are done to look at the inside of the eye or the space behind the eye that can't be seen directly. This may occur when you have cataracts or other conditions that make it hard for the doctor to see into the back of your eye.

B-Scan

Biometry

Biometry is the method of applying mathematics to biology. The refractive power of the eye primarily depends upon the cornea, the lens, ocular media, and the axial length of the eye. Biometry is the process of measuring the power of the cornea (keratometry) and the length of the eye, and using this data to determine the ideal intraocular lens power. If this calculation is not performed, or if it is inaccurate, then patients may be left with a significant refractive error. Inter Ocular Lens Master – Lol Master machine used for Biometry.

Biometry

A-Scan

A-Scan Ultrasound biometry, also referred to as A-Scan, utilizes an ultrasound device for diagnostic testing. This device can determine the length of the eye and can be useful in diagnosing common sight disorders. Another use for A-Scans is diagnosing and measuring masses in the eyes. An A scan is a highly precise measurement of the eye used to help us choose the correct lens implant power before cataract surgery. A-scan biometry by immersion has better reproducibility, which leads to an overall increase in accuracy.

A-Scan

Oculoplasty Services

Oculoplastic services are performed by surgeons who are ophthalmologists who specialize in plastic and reconstructive surgery of the periorbital and facial tissues, including the eyelids, eyebrows, forehead, cheeks, the orbit (the bony cavity around the eye), and the lacrimal (tear) system. In essence, oculoplastic surgery is the cosmetic, corrective, and reconstructive surgery of the eye. It manages and repairs problems primarily related to the tissues or structures surrounding the eye, rather than the eyeball itself.

Oculoplasty Services

Specular Microscope

The specular microscope is an optical reflection microscope where a slit of light is focused on the corneal endothelial surface and specularly (mirror-like) reflected light rays are focused onto a film plane for viewing on a real-time monitor. It is important to check specular microscopy in patients with a history of low DK lens wear, blurred vision with contact lens wear, fluctuating vision, or corneal edema. A specular microscope enables the viewer to study the morphology of the cells to look for any abnormalities indicating trauma.

Specular Microscope

Intra Ocular Pressure - Lop (Air Puff)

The puff test is a non-contact tonometry test that puffs a small burst of air into your eye. The air bounces back to the tonometer and gives the machine a reading of your eye's intraocular pressure (IOP), or pressure inside the eye. As the patient stares at a light inside the machine, a small burst of air is "puffed" into each open eye. Although this might be a little uncomfortable and unnerving, it's not painful; nothing but the puff of air touches the eye.

Intra Ocular Pressure - Lop (Air Puff)

Ocular Coherence Tomography Macula – OCT Macula B/E

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging test. OCT uses light waves to take cross-section pictures of your retina. With OCT, your ophthalmologist can see each of the retina’s distinctive layers. This allows your ophthalmologist to map and measure their thickness. These measurements help with diagnosis. They also provide treatment guidance for glaucoma and diseases of the retina. These retinal diseases include age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic eye disease. You will sit in front of the OCT machine, and the equipment will then scan your eye without touching it.

Ocular Coherence Tomography Macula – OCT Macula B/E

Ocular Coherence Tomography Macula Both Eye/ One Eye – Oct Macula B/E

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging test. OCT uses light waves to take cross-section pictures of your retina. With OCT, your ophthalmologist can see each of the retina's distinctive layers. This allows your ophthalmologist to map and measure their thickness. With an OCT, doctors are able to see a cross section or 3D image of the retina and detect the early onset of a variety of eye conditions and eye diseases such as macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (the top three diseases known to cause blindness).

Ocular Coherence Tomography Macula Both Eye/ One Eye – Oct Macula B/E

Ocular Coherence Tomography Macula Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers – OCT Macula RNFL

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Ocular Coherence Tomography Macula Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers – OCT Macula RNFL

Ocular Coherence Tomography Macula Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers / Ganglion cells – OCT

The retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) is formed by the expansion of the fibers of the optic nerve; it is thickest near the optic disc, gradually diminishing toward the ora serrata. Ganglion cells are the final output neurons of the vertebrate retina. Ganglion cells collect information about the visual world from bipolar cells and amacrine cells (retinal interneurons). Macular ganglion cell analysis with OCT provides a quick, noninvasive way to identify retinal ganglion cell loss. Ganglion cell loss respecting the vertical midline suggests retrograde degeneration from postchiasmal neurological disease.

Ocular Coherence Tomography Macula Retinal Nerve Fiber Layers / Ganglion cells – OCT

Macula Rnfl/Gl

Macula RNFL analysis is an extremely helpful tool for the management of glaucoma patients. It can be used in conjunction with other examination findings and diagnostic imaging tools to diagnose early or preperimetric cases. The quantitative nature of these measurements is useful for monitoring disease progression. Assessment of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) has been an important target for both glaucoma diagnosis and disease progression monitoring because the RNFL comprises the retinal ganglion cell axons.

Macula Rnfl/Gl

Ocular Coherence Tomography - Oct/ Pachymetry

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technology used to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional images of the retina. OCT uses rays of light to measure retinal thickness. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging test. With OCT, your ophthalmologist can see each of the retina's distinctive layers. This allows your ophthalmologist to map and measure their thickness. With an OCT, doctors are able to detect the early onset of a variety of eye conditions and eye diseases such as macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy.

Ocular Coherence Tomography - Oct/ Pachymetry

Humphrey Visual Field – Hfa/ (Visual Field)

The Humphrey visual field analyser (HFA) is a tool for measuring the human visual field that is commonly used by optometrists, orthoptists, and ophthalmologists, particularly for detecting monocular visual fields. The results of the analyser identify the type of vision defect. Therefore, it provides information regarding the location of any disease processes or lesions throughout the visual pathway. This contributes to the diagnosis of the condition affecting the patient's vision. These results are stored and used for monitoring the progression of vision loss and the patient's condition.

Humphrey Visual Field – Hfa/ (Visual Field)

Central Corneal Thickness – Cct/ Pachymetry

A pachymeter is a medical device used to measure the thickness of the eye's cornea. It is used to perform corneal pachymetry prior to refractive surgery, for keratoconus screening, cataract surgery, and LRI surgery, and is useful in screening for patients suspected of developing glaucoma, among other uses. Pachymetry can be performed by two methods: ultrasound techniques or optical techniques. Ultrasound Pachymetry: 5 Ultrasound pachymetry, as the name implies, uses ultrasound principles to measure the thickness of the cornea. This method uses devices that are cost-effective and portable.

Central Corneal Thickness – Cct/ Pachymetry

Fundus Photo

Fundus photography involves photographing the rear of an eye, also known as the fundus. Specialized fundus cameras consisting of an intricate microscope attached to a flash-enabled camera are used in fundus photography. The main structures that can be visualized in a fundus photo are the central and peripheral retina, the optic disc, and the macula. Fundus photography is used by optometrists, ophthalmologists, orthoptists, and other trained medical professionals to monitor the progression of certain eye conditions and diseases. In patients with diabetes mellitus, regular fundus screening examinations are important.

Fundus Photo

Glaucoma

Glaucoma is usually picked up during a routine eye test, often before it causes any noticeable symptoms. Other tests are usually needed afterwards to diagnose and monitor the condition. It's important to have regular eye tests so problems such as glaucoma can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Early treatment can help stop your vision becoming severely affected. There are different tests that can be carried out by an optometrist if they suspect you have glaucoma after a routine eye test.

Glaucoma